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Excessive thinning, exposure to products such as nail polish and excess physical exercise are some examples. Most people are already aware that a woman's fertility decreases as she gets older. That way, anyone who wants to get pregnant "first-rate" if possible should avoid leaving too late.

Women are born with a certain number of eggs, reaching puberty with 300,000 eggs available on their ovaries on average. With each menstrual cycle a few hundred eggs are recruited, so that only one reaches maturation and subsequent ovulation. Unfortunately, there is no way to regenerate the quantity of eggs throughout life. Therefore, a woman's fertility is proportional to her age. By the age of 30, a healthy woman has a pretty good amount and quality of ovulation and is more likely to get pregnant.

From the age of 35 woman's egg reserve is already beginning to decrease considerably, with the natural drop in fertility, and this becomes more visible after 40. Ovulation quality also falls, and this is reflected in ovules prone to errors in their cell division, producing more embryos with genetic alterations, which are impediments to generating a healthy pregnancy, thus increasing the rate of abortion. But what not everyone knows is that even during the most fertile years, lifestyle choices and external factors can affect a woman's chances of getting pregnant. Below you will know factors - some even unusual - that can negatively affect a woman's fertility.

1. Obesity

Obese women have a metabolism of hormones altered. As, for example, increased estrogen production, produced by both the ovary and adipose tissue. This can lead to ovulatory changes, such as menstrual irregularity, absence of menses (amenorrhoea), alterations in the endometrial receptivity, which makes implantation of the embryo difficult, or increasing the chance of abortions. The main causes of infertility in obese patients, according to the specialists, are: reduced frequency of ovulation, changes in sexual steroids, worse oocyte quality and embryos formed.

How to avoid?

In order to avoid these disorders, it is recommended maintain a BMI (body mass index) between 20 and 25 kg / m2, considered normal. It can be acceptable up to 30 kg / m2, even considered already overweight. An adequate diet and practice of physical activity regularly can avoid this factor.

2. Excessive thinness

Both obesity and excessive thinness, with a BMI below 17 kg / m2, impair female fertility. Lack of weight interferes with hormone production, reducing the production of estrogen in the body, and may lead to disturbances in the menstrual and ovulatory cycle, causing a difficulty in conception.

How to avoid?

According to experts, to avoid this type of problem, the woman must have a balanced and healthy diet, without exaggeration in the search for a perfect body.

3. Thyroid Disorders

Hypothyroidism (when the number of hormones produced by the thyroid is below normal) is very common in women. When uncontrolled, it can decrease fertility by interfering with the so-called pituitary-ovarian hormone axis.

How to avoid?

Specialists points out that when looking for a doctor early, the disease can be easily diagnosed through blood tests and thyroid ultrasound, and the treatment is soon started.

4. Caffeine in excess

Do you love coffee?! Taking it in moderation does not pose any problem, quite the contrary, it may even offer health benefits. But in excess, it is not recommended due to the high amount of caffeine. Relationship between caffeine and fertility is still unclear, it is recommended to use it sparingly. It is believed that the equivalent of the maximum consumption of two cups of coffee per day is reasonable.

How to avoid?

Just do not overdo the amount of coffee and other beverages that contain caffeine (green tea, black tea, etc.). Taking two cups of coffee a day, for example, will not pose any risk.

5. Genetics

If a woman has a genetic alteration in her chromosome set (karyotype), this can be an infertility factor. Genetic alterations can mainly cause repeat abortions, considered a problem after the occurrence of the third consecutive.

How to avoid?

In these cases, it is recommended to seek a treatment of assisted reproduction, in addition to a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, in order to investigate the embryo. In this way, only genetically normal embryos are allowed to be transferred.

6. Exposure to household chemicals

Some chemical components present in a range of household products such as cleaning products, paints, dyestuffs, solvents, nail polishes, cosmetics and tinctures can be very toxic if excessively handled and can negatively affect female fertility. Some of these components have formaldehyde, ether, perchlorethylene and toluene, among others. The harmful effects found are: miscarriages, fetal malformations, irregular menstruation, and a decrease in fertility as a whole.

How to avoid?

In practice, it is not possible to point out a definitive solution to avoid exposure to such components. But seeking a healthier diet, opting whenever possible for natural foods, is already a path (which will decrease, therefore, the consumption of food with at least dyes).

It is interesting to try, as far as possible, to avoid contact with these components. Of course, this task, for the most part, is complicated and difficult to incorporate into the routine, but being aware of these problems is useful and it is a fact that can be talked about and debated with a professional you trust.

7. Professions

Few people know, but some professions, indirectly, may also interfere with fertility. Especially those with excessive exposure to environmental pollutants, contact with volatile chemicals and those subjected to high temperatures.

How to avoid?

Once again it is not possible to point out a definitive solution to avoid the problem. The best way is to talk about it with a specialist you trust who can best guide you if your profession may be interfering indirectly with your fertility. Further research is needed on the effects on fertility (female and male) due to exposure. As a consequence, these advances will allow the development of preventive actions.

8. Gynecological diseases

Micropolictistic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and uterine fibroids are very common gynecological diseases that lead several couples to the office of conjugal infertility.

How to avoid?

Unfortunately, the expert points out, there is no way to prevent them. But early diagnosis can ease the symptoms, prevent the progressive worsening of the disease and provide the couple with a more objective path to pregnancy. In this context, the need to make regular visits to the gynecologist is reinforced, being always attentive to health in general, regardless of the desire to become pregnant.

9. Smoking

Smoking can negatively affect a woman's fertility, and many factors. Smoking causes a higher rate of infertility, decreased fecundity, and increased time to conception. All these factors cause damage to the woman's reproductive system. In addition the toxic components present in the cigarette can trigger early ovarian failure, accelerating the onset of menopause in one to four years; fewer ovarian follicles; difficulty in transporting the embryo from the tubas to the uterine cavity, as it affects the ciliary mobility of these, which can lead to a greater number of tubal ectopic pregnancies; chromosomal and DNA alterations, interfering in gametogenesis; and, finally, greater number of gestational losses. It is worth noting that smoking is a concern in many countries and can affect both female and male fertility.

How to avoid?

Smoking is a serious addiction, which can offer several health problems (and not just fertility). In this way, there is no other way but to avoid it altogether.

10. Sexually transmitted diseases

Among other problems, sexually transmitted diseases can negatively affect a woman's fertility. They interfere with the immune and inflammatory response, with negative impacts on the functioning of the pelvic organs, leading to decreased fertility. In this universe, Chlamydia continues being one of the most frequent micro-organisms.

How to avoid?

It is essential to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, and this can be done mainly through safe sex, use condoms, and also of regular consultations with the gynecologist doctor, performing all the exams requested by him.

11. Stress

Several scientific studies have been correlating stress with the reduction of the couple's fertility, gestational losses and worsening of perinatal outcomes.

How to avoid?

As hard as it may seem, one must struggle to control the stress that, in excess, can offer various health problems. Good tips for this are: exercising, having a balanced diet (preferably counting on the advice of a nutritionist), taking the time to do things you like, sleeping well, having a time of day exclusively to relax etc. In some cases, it is very important to still seek help from a professional.

12. Excessive physical exercise

High-intensity physical activity can reduce fertility by generating a blockage in the pituitary-ovarian axis. "Endorphin released by vigorous exercise inhibits the pituitary gland, compromising ovulation. This causes an ovulatory change and, consequently, anovulation and absence of menstruation, "he says.

How to avoid?

Guidance is just "do not overdo it". Mild to moderate exercise are helpful and help increase the chance of conception of the couple, as they lead to a metabolic and hormonal balance. When done with moderation and follow-up, it's positive. Maintenance of an adequate weight, with an ideal BMI between 20 and 25 kg / m2, improves the availability of the hormones related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation.

Prolonged use of contraceptive vs. fertility

A common question is whether contraceptive use over a long period can adversely affect a woman's fertility (even if she stops using it). It is worth explaining, however, that prolonged use of birth control pills does not affect fertility because it does not interfere with the decrease in the number of eggs throughout life. Mechanisms that lead to this reduction occur in a similar way with or without the use of pills.

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